smokingSmoking and the use of nicotine products are weak risk factors for developing chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). However, it is well established that smoking impairs circulation and can cause coronary disease, heart attacks, strokes, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and cancer. Smoking can cause peripheral arterial disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD). PAD has similar symptoms to CVI – leg pains, skin problems, and poor wound healing – but the two conditions are actually very different.

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